PD Dr. Tonio Ball google scholar publication list

Peer-reviewed journal and conference articles


  • Welke D.*, Behncke J.*, Hader M., Schirrmeister R. T., Schönau A., Eßmann B., Müller O., Burgard W., and Ball T., *equally contributing. "Brain Responses During Robot-Error Observation". Kognitive Systeme (accepted). arxiv.org/abs/1708.01465
  • Schirrmeister, R. T., Springenberg, J. T., Fiederer, L. D. J., Glasstetter, M., Eggensperger, K., Tangermann, M., Hutter, F., Burgard W., and Ball, T. (2017). "Deep learning with convolutional neural networks for EEG decoding and visualization". Human Brain Mapping.
  • Kohler F*., Gkogkidis C.A*., Bentler C., Wang X., Gierthmuehlen M., Fischer J., Stolle C., Reindl L.M., Rickert J., Stieglitz T., Ball T., Schuettler M., *equally contributing. "Closed-loop interaction with the cerebral cortex: A review of wireless implant technology". Brain-Computer Interfaces (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2326263X.2017.1338011.
  • Burget F.*, Fiederer L.D.J.*, Kuhner D.*, Völker M.*, Aldinger J., Schirrmeister R.T., Do C., Boedecker J., Nebel B., Ball T. and Burgard W., *equally contributing. "Acting Thoughts: Towards a Mobile Robotic Service Assistant for Users with Limited Communication Skill", Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE European Conference on Mobile Robotics.
  • Iljina O., Derix J., Schirrmeister R. T., Schulze-Bonhage A., Auer P., Aertsen A. and Ball T., "Neurolinguistic and machine-learning perspectives on direct speech BCIs for restoration of naturalistic communication". Brain-Computer Interfaces (2017): 1-14.
  • Voelker M., Berberich S., Andreev E., Fiederer L.D.J., Burgard W., and Ball T., "Between-Subject Transfer Learning for Classification of Error-Related Signals in High-Density EEG", 1st Neuroadaptive Technology Conference 2017
  • Gkogkidis C.A., Wang X., Gierthmuehlen M., Haberstroh J., Schuettler M., Rickert J., Stieglitz T., and Ball T., "Cortico-cortical spectral responses elicited by closed-loop stimulation in the sheep somatosensory cortex". 1st Neuroadpative Technology Conference 2017.
  • Wang X., Gkogkidis C.A., Iljina O., Fiederer L.D.J., Henle C., Mader I., Kaminsky J., Stieglitz T., Gierthmuehlen M., and Ball T. (2017). Mapping the fine structure of cortical activity with different micro-ECoG electrode array geometries. J Neural Eng. 2017 Jun 9;14(5):056004. https://doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aa785e



  • Fiederer L.D.J., Lahr J., Vorwerk J., Lucka F., Aertsen A., Wolters C.H., Schulze-Bonhage A., Ball T., “Electrical Stimulation of the Human Cerebral Cortex by Extracranial Muscle Activity: Effect Quantification with Intracranial EEG and FEM Simulations”, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 63, no. 12, pp 2552-2563.
  • Chet T. Moritz, Patrick Ruther, Sara Goering, Alfred Stett, Tonio Ball, Wolfram Burgard, Eric H. Chudler,  Rajesh P. N. Rao, "New Perspectives on Neuroengineering and Neurotechnologies: NSF-DFG Workshop Report." Trans. Biomed. Eng., in press.
  • Hammer J, Pistohl T, Fischer J, Kršek P, Tomášek M, Marusič P, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Ball T. (2016) Predominance of movement speed over direction in neuronal population signals of motor cortex: intracranial EEG data and a simple explanatory model. Cereb Cortex (2016) 26 (6): 2863-2881. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhw033.
  • Lukas D.J. Fiederer, Johannes Vorwerk, Felix Lucka, Moritz Dannhauer, Shan Yang, Matthias Dümpelmann, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ad Aertsen, Oliver Speck, Carsten H. Wolters, Tonio Ball, “The Role of Blood Vessels in High-Resolution Volume Conductor Head Modeling of EEG.” NeuroImage 128 (March 2016): 193–208. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.041.
  • Schubert, T., K. Eggensperger, A. Gkogkidis, F. Hutter, T. Ball, and W. Burgard. 2016, "Automatic Bone Parameter Estimation for Skeleton Tracking in Optical Motion Capture". In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 5548–54. doi:10.1109/ICRA.2016.7487771.
  • Kellmeyer P, Cochrane T, Müller O, Mitchell C, Ball T, Fins JJ, Biller-Andorno N. The Effects of Closed-Loop Medical Devices on the Autonomy and Accountability of Persons and Systems. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. 2016 Oct; 25(4): pp. 623-33 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180116000359
  • Mutschler I, Ball T, Kirmse U, Wieckhorst B, Pluess M, Klarhöfer M, Meyer AH, Wilhelm FH, Seifritz E. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying, PLoS ONE, August 2016



  • Jacob Lahr, Christina Schwartz, Bernhard Heimbach, Ad Aertsen, Jörn Rickert, Tonio Ball, "Invasive brain-machine interfaces: a survey of paralyzed patients' attitudes, knowledge and methods of information retrieval", Journal of Neural Engineering, Volume 12, Issue 4,14 July 2015, doi:10.1088/1741-2560/12/4/043001
  • Sebastian Weichwald, Timm Meyer, Ozan Özdenizci, Bernhard Schölkopf, Tonio Ball, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Causal interpretation rules for encoding and decoding models in neuroimaging, NeuroImage, Volume 110, 15 April 2015, Pages 48-59, ISSN 1053-8119, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.01.036.
  • Tobias Volk, Adnan Yousaf, Joan Albesa, Sebastian Stoecklin, Shah Hussain, C. Alexis Gkogkidis, Tonio Ball, Leonhard Reindl, "Wireless Power Distribution System for Brain Implants", 2015 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), May 11-14, 2015, Pisa, Italy, 10.1109/I2MTC.2015.7151452
  • Tobias Schubert, Alexis Gkogkidis, Tonio Ball, Wolfram Burgard, "Automatic Initialization for Skeleton Tracking in Optical Motion Capture", Proceedings of 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2015,10.1109/ICRA.2015.7139260
  • Sebastian Schröer, Ingo Killmann, Barbara Frank, Martin Völker, Lukas D. J. Fiederer, Tonio Ball, Wolfram Burgard, "An Autonomous Robotic Assistant for Drinking", Proceedings of 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2015, 10.1109/ICRA.2015.7140110



  • Mutschler et al., Who gets afraid in the MRI-scanner? Neurogenetics of state-anxiety changes during an fMRI experiment, Neuroscience Letters, accepted
  • Derix J, Iljina O, Weiske J, Schulze-Bonhage A,Aertsen A, Ball T, From speech to thought: the neuronal basis of cognitive units in non-experimental, real-life communication investigated using ECoG, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Accepted
  • Gierthmuehlen, M., Wang, X., Gkogkidis, A., Henle, C., Fischer, J., Fehrenbacher, T., Kohler, F., Raab, M., Mader, I., Kuehn, C., Foerster, K., Haberstroh, J., Freiman, T. M., Stieglitz, T., Rickert, J., Schuettler, M. and Ball, T. (2014), "Mapping of sheep sensory cortex with a novel microelectrocorticography grid". J. Comp. Neurol., doi: 10.1002/cne.23631
  • Derix, J., Yang, S., Lüsebrink, F., Fiederer, L. D. J., Schulze-Bonhage, A., Aertsen, A., Speck, O. and Ball, T. (2014), Visualization of the amygdalo–hippocampal border and its structural variability by 7T and 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Hum. Brain Mapp., 35: 4316–4329. doi: 10.1002/hbm.22477
  • Weichwald, S.; Meyer, T.; Scholkopf, B.; Ball, T.; Grosse-Wentrup, M., "Decoding index finger position from EEG using random forests," Cognitive Information Processing (CIP), 2014 4th International Workshop on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 26-28 May 2014 doi: 10.1109/CIP.2014.6844513
  • Thomas Lampe*, Lukas D. J. Fiederer*, Martin Voelker, Alexander Knorr, Martin Riedmiller, Tonio Ball (2014) A Brain-Computer Interface for High-Level Remote Control of an Autonomous, Reinforcement-Learning-Based Robotic System for Reaching and Grasping. In International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces (IUI 2014). Haifa, Israel. doi: 10.1145/2557500.2557533 (*: equally contributing)



  • Hammer J, Fischer J, Ruescher J, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Ball T The role of ECoG magnitude and phase in decoding position, velocity and acceleration during continuous motor behavior, Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics, 2013 Nov 1;7:200. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00200. eCollection 2013.
  • Mutschler I, Reinbold C, Wankerl J, Seifritz E, Ball T, Structural basis of empathy and the domain general region in the anterior insular cortex, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience,  2013 May 9;7:177. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00177. eCollection 2013.
  • Kern M, Aertsen A, Schulze-Bonhage A, Ball T, Heart cycle-related effects on event-related potentials, spectral power changes, and connectivity patterns in the human ECoG, NeuroImage, 2013 Nov 1;81:178-90. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.042. Epub 2013 May 16.
  • Ruescher J, Iljina O, Altenmüller DM, Aertsen A, Schulze-Bonhage A, Ball T, Somatotopic mapping of natural upper- and lower-extremity movements and speech production with high gamma electrocorticography, NeuroImage, 2013 Nov 1;81:164-77. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.04.102. Epub 2013 May 3.
  • Alexander DM, Jurica P, Trengove C, Nikolaev AR, Gepshtein S, Zvyagintsev M, Mathiak K, Schulze-Bonhage A, Rüscher J, Ball T, van Leeuwen C, Traveling waves and trial averaging: the nature of single-trial and averaged brain responses in large-scale cortical signals, NeuroImage (in press)
  • Milekovic T, Ball T, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A and Mehring C, Detection of error related neuronal responses recorded by electrocorticography in humans during continuous movements, PLoS ONE (accepted)
  • Pistohl T, Schmidt TS, Ball T, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A and Mehring C, Grasp detection from human ECoG during natural reach-to-grasp movements, PLoS ONE (accepted)



  • Thinnes-Elker F, Iljina O, Apostolides JK, Kraemer F, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Ball T (accepted), Intention concepts and brain-machine interfacing, Frontiers in Cognition (link)
  • Derix J, Iljina O, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A and Ball T (2012) 'Doctor' or 'darling'? Decoding the communication partner from ECoG of the anterior temporal lobe during non-experimental, real-life social interaction Front Hum Neurosci (link)
  • Sammler D, Koelsch S, Ball T, Brandt A, Grigutscha M, Huppertze H-J,Knösche TR, Wellmer J, Widman G, Elger CE, Friederici AD, Schulze-Bonhage A (2012) Co-localizing linguistic and musical syntax with intracranial EEG, NeuroImage (in press)
  • Milekovic T,Fischer J, Pistohl T,Ruescher J,Schulze-Bonhage A,Aertsen A,Rickert J, Ball T*,Mehring C* (2012) An online brain-machine interface using decoding of movement direction from the human electrocorticogram, J Neural Eng, in press (*: equally contributing)
  • Mutschler I, Ball T, Wankerl J, Strigo IA, (2012) Pain and emotion in the insular cortex: evidence for functional reorganization in major depression, Neuroscience Letters, in press (link)
  • Demandt E, Mehring C, Vogt K, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Ball T (2012) Reaching movement onset- and end-related characteristics of EEG spectral power modulations, Frontiers in Neuroprosthetics, in press (link)


2011 and before

  • Milekovic T, Ball T, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen Ad,Mehring C (2011) Error related electrocorticographic activity in humans during continuous movements, Journal of Neural Engineering, accepted
  • Gierthmühlen M, Ball T, Henle C, Wang X, Rickert J, Raab M, Freiman M, Stieglitz T, Kaminsky J, (2011) Evaluation of µECoG electrode arrays in the minipig: experimental procedure and neurosurgical approach; Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Volume 202, Issue 1, pp 77–86
  • Pistohl T; Schulze-Bonhage A; Aertsen A; Mehring C; Ball T (2011) Decoding natural grasp types from human ECoG; NeuroImage 2011 Jul 8. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Ball T, Breckel TPK, Mutschler I, Aertsen A, Schulze-Bonhage A,Hennig J,Speck O (2012) Variability of fMRI-Response Patterns at Different Spatial Observation Scales; Human Brain Mapping 33(5):1155-71
  • Dümpelmann M, Ball T, Schulze-Bonhages A. (2010) sLORETA allows reliable distributed source reconstruction based on subdural strip and grid recordings; , Human Brain Mapping 2011 May 26. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21276. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Mutschler I, Wieckhorst B, Speck O, Schulze-Bonhage A, Hennig J, Seifritz E, Ball T. (2010) Time Scales of Auditory Habituation in the Amygdala and Cerebral Cortex. Cerebral Cortex (in press)
  • Mutschler I, Wieckhorst B, Kowalevski S, Derix J, Wentlandt J, Schulze-Bonhage A, Ball T. (2009) Functional Organization of the Human Anterior Insular Cortex. Neuroscience Letters 26;457(2):66-70
  • Sammler D, Koelsch S, Ball T, Brandt A, Elger CE, Friederici AD, Grigutsch M, Huppertz HJ, Knösche TR, Wellmer J, Widman G, Schulze-Bonhage A. (2009) Overlap of musical and linguistic syntax processing: intracranial ERP evidence. Ann N Y Acad Sci.; 1169:494-498
  • Ball T, Derix J, Wentlandt J, Wieckhorst B, Speck O, Schulze-Bonhage A, Mutschler I. (2009)Anatomical Specificity of Functional Amygdala Imaging of Responses to Stimuli with Positive and Negative Emotional Valence Journal of Neuroscience Methods 30;180(1):57-70
  • Ball T, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Mehring C (2009).
    Differential representation of arm movement direction in relation to cortical anatomy and function Journal of Neural Engineering 6(1):016006
  • Ball T, Kern M, Mutschler I, Aertsen A, Schulze-Bonhage A (2009).
    Signal Quality of Simultaneously Recorded Invasive and Non-Invasive EEG
    NeuroImage 46(3):708-16
  • Ball T, Demandt E, Mutschler I, Neitzel E, Mehring C, Vogt K, Ad Aertsen A, Schulze-Bonhage A (2008). Movement Related Activity in the High Gamma Range of the Human EEG NeuroImage 2008 Jun;41(2):302-10.
  • Pistohl T, Ball T, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Mehring C (2008)
    Prediction of Arm Movement Trajectories from ECoG-Recordings in Humans.
    J Neurosci Methods, 167/1 pp. 105-115 (pdf)
  • Mutschler I, Schulze-Bonhage A, Glauche V, Demandt E, Speck O, Ball T (2007)
    A Rapid Sound-Action Association Effect in Human Insular Cortex
    PLoS ONE 2(2): e259. (pdf)
  • Ball T, Rahm B, Eickhoff SB, Schulze-Bonhage A, Speck O, Mutschler I (2007)
    Response Properties of Human Amygdala Subregions: Evidence Based on Functional MRI Combined with Probabilistic Anatomical Maps PLoS ONE 2(3): e307. (pdf)
  • Mehring C, Nawrot MP, Cardoso de Oliveira S, Vaadia E, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Ball T (2005) Comparing information about arm movement direction in single channels of local and epicortical field potentials from monkey and human motor cortex
    J.Physiol. (Paris) 98:498-506 (pdf)
  • Müller T, Ball T, Kristeva-Feige R, Mergner T, Timmer J,
    Selecting relevant electrode positions for classification tasks based on the electro-encephalogram Med Biol Eng Comput. 2000 Jan;38(1):62-7. (pdf)
  • Ball T, Schreiber A, Feige B, Wagner M, Lücking CH, Kristeva-Feige R (1999)
    The role of higher-order motor areas in voluntary movement as revealed by high-resolution EEG and fMRI Neuroimage. 1999 Dec;10(6):682-94 (pdf)


Review articles

  • Ball T*, Nawrot MP,* Pistohl T, Aertsen A, Schulze-Bonhage A, Mehring C* (2004)
    Towards a brain-machine interface based on epicortical field potentials.
    Biomed. Eng. (Berlin), 49 (Suppl. 2), 756-759 (pdf)
  • Waldert S* and Pistohl T*, Braun C, Ball T, Aertsen A, Mehring C (2009), A Review on Directional Information in Neural Signals for Brain-Machine Interfaces, Journal of Physiology Paris (accepted)


Non-peer-reviewed articles

  • Fiederer, L. D. J., T. Lampe, M. Voelker, L. Spinello, W. Burgard, M. Riedmiller, and T. Ball. “An Augmented Reality Approach for BCI Control of Intelligent Autonomous Robots.” In Biomed. Eng. (Berlin), 59:S1097–S1097, 2014. (pdf) http://scholar.google.com
  • T. Ball, I. Mutschler, D. Jäger, M. Otte, A. Schulze-Bonhage, J. Hennig, O. Speck and A. Schreiber. (2008)
    Elastic Registration of Functional MRI Data to Sensorimotor Cortex. IFMBE Proceedings, Vol. 22, 885-888. (pdf)
  • I. Mutschler, B. Wieckhorst, A. Schulze-Bonhage, E. Seifritz, J. Hennig, O. Speck, and T. Ball. (2008)
    Probabilistic Assignment of Brain Responses to the Human Amygdala and its Subregions using High Resolution Functional MRI. IFMBE Proceedings, Vol. 22, 807-810 (pdf)
  • Rickert J, Ball T, Henle C, Huetz C, Fischer J, Liao X, Meier W, Schuettler M, Milekovic T, Pistohl T, Raab M, Vogt K, Schulze-Bonhage A, Stieglitz T, Aertsen A, Mehring C (2008) Development of a neuronal motor prosthesis for the restoration of movement in paralyzed people. 13th Annual Conference of the International FES Society (Germany, Freiburg) (pdf)
  • Milekovic T, Ball T, Schulze-Bonhage A, Aertsen A, Mehring C (2008) Performance and control error related neuronal signals in human ECoG recordings. 13th Annual Conference of the International FES Society (Germany, Freiburg) (pdf)
  • Mutschler I and Ball T (2007)
    High-Quality Auditory Stimulation for Functional MRI Research: Experience from two studies
    NordicNeuroLab Newsletter II/2007, 2-3 (pdf)


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